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Kassán most kedvemre lakom

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Móser Zoltán fantasztikus cikksorozata a régmúlt idők, az elfelejtett Magyarország kincseit mutatja meg nekünk ebben a párját ritkító sorozatban, mely a Magyar Nemzet hétvégi magazinjának volt elengedhetetlen tartozéka. Utazzon velünk, ismerjük meg együtt Magyarországot egy kicsit másképpen.

 

Látva látom Tinódit Egerben, Csábráng várának romjainál, de nem látom Tinódon, a Bihar megyei faluban, sem Kassán. Vagyis arra kell választ adni, hogyan került Tinódi a kincses Kassára, ide, ebbe a házba?
Röviden foglaljuk össze, hogy mit tudunk a kor riporteréről, az első hivatásos költőről. Tinódi Sebestyén XVI. századbeli vándorénekes, a kor legjelentősebb énekmondója, valószínűleg a Baranya vármegyei (esetleg a Fejér megyei) Tinódon született 1510 körül. Iskolákat járt, tudott latinul, értett a hangjegyekhez is; magát „literatus”-nak, „deák”-nak, azaz tanult embernek, továbbá „lantos”-nak írja: énekeihez dallamokat is szerzett, s lanttal kísérve elő is adta pártfogói, háza népe és vendégei meg a várnép előtt.
Lehet, hogy kezdetben vitézi pályán volt, talán Török Bálint szolgálatában, s mikor kézsebe miatt hadi szolgálatra alkalmatlanná lett, akkor lett énekszerzővé. Ez a hozzávetés azon alapul, hogy első fennmaradt művét, a Jázonról szóló históriáját, amely 1537 körül keletkezett, a versfejek tanúsága szerint Dombóvárt, bal kezének nehéz sebe miatt kínlódva szerzette. Dombóvár akkor Török Bálinté volt, és Tinódit a következő években e hatalmas főúr udvarában látjuk Szigetváron. Mint íródeák, lantos az úrfiak nevelőjeként szolgálhatott. Uráról és ura családjáról mindig a legmeghatóbb melegséggel szólt. Buda eleste és urának török fogságba jutása (1541) fordulópontot jelentett életében. Ekkor lett „politikai költővé”. Kora eseményeit, a török–magyar harcok epizódjait szedte versekbe, amelyekben a török ellen tüzelte a magyar urakat és vitézeket. Mivel a Török család Szigetből nemsokára békésebb vidékre tette át lakóhelyét, Tinódi is távozott a várból, de egy-két évig még azon a vidéken maradt. 1542-ben Baranyavárott az Istvánffyaknál írja Prini (Perényi) Péternek, Majláth Istvánnak és Terek Bálintnak fogságokról című énekét, amely nemcsak elbeszélése e három főúr hálóba jutásának, hanem hathatós intelem is a többi uralknak, hogy óvakodjanak a török maszlagtól, értsenek egyet és fogjanak össze állhatatosan a török ellen. 1542-ben Daruvárott új pártfogójának, Werbőczi Imrének a kozári mezőn nyert diadalát énekli meg, s az urakat a végbeli vitézek támogatására serkenti. Mikor a török egyre jobban terjeszkedett, Tinódi is elhagyta a délvidéket. 1548 végén Kassán telepedett meg, Czeczei Lénárt városkapitány oltalma alatt. A Kovács utcában házat kapott (házát 1900. június 10-én emléktáblával jelölte meg a város), szőlőt, polgárjogot (nemesi rangot) szerzett, felesége patikaféle üzletet nyitott, ő pedig énekeit írta, melyeknek anyagáért el-elrándult az országgyűlések, alkudozások, üztközetek színhelyeire. Sokat vándorolt, históriás énekeinek anyagát gyűjtötte: „sokat fáradtam, futostam, tudakoztam, sokat is költöttem”.
Kassa városában addig maradt, míg kötetének nyomdai munkálatai Erdélybe nem szólították. Élete utolsó napjait Nádasdy pártfogoltjaként Sárvár közelében tölti. 1556 januárjában halt meg. Egy korabeli levélíró szerint: „Megvetvén ezt a halandó muzsikát, elment a mennybéliekhez, hogy ott az angyalok között sokkal jobbat tanuljon...”
Örökségének talán a legfontosabb sorát hadd írjam befejezésül. Ezt nemcsak ismerni, de alkalmazni is tudnunk kell, még akkor is, ha ma olyan nehéznek tűnik: „Sem adományért, sem barátságért, sem félelemért hamisat be nem írtam, azmi keveset írtam, mind igazat írtam.”

 

Móser Zoltán, mno.hu

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