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Rábaszentmiklós Árpád-kori temploma

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Magyar Nemzet szombati magazinjának egyik legérdekesebb sorozatát közöljük le folytatásokban, melyben a remek Ludwig Emil megmutatja nekünk a rejtőzködő Magyarország eldugott kincseit, melyek mellett sokszor figyelmetlenül elhaladunk a mindennapi rohanó életünk során. Vigyázzunk ezekre a páratlan kincsekre, hiszen ezek a kincsek alappillérei szeretett Hazánknak.

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Egy 1287-ben kelt okiratban szereplő adat – „ecclesiam in honore b. Nicolai confessoris constructam” – Szent Miklós hitvalló tiszteletére épített templomot említ a Rába menti településen. Az apró, ma alig kétszáz lelket számláló falut, amely valójában a Rábával párhuzamosan folydogáló Marcal partjához fekszik közelebb, régen Kerekszentmiklósnak nevezték. A Magyarországon számos helyen előforduló Kerekegyháza és hasonló öszszetételű helynevek (például Kerekszenttamás, Kerekboldogasszonyfalva stb.) mindenütt arra utalnak, hogy a község régi temploma kör alaprajzú volt. A latin nyelvű okiratok a „rotunda ecclesia” formulával jelölik az ilyen településeket, illetve régi plébániáikat – amelyek közül sajnos az évszázadok alatt a legtöbb épület elpusztult, és csupán a helység neve őrizte meg az emléküket.
Rábaszentmiklós esetében szerencsésebb a helyzet: a község közepén, alacsony domb tetején most is ott büszkélkedik a régi névadó kerek templom. Védőszentje: a myrai Szent Miklós püspök. A győri egyházmegye birtokán, a közeli folyók öntésterületéből pár méternyivel kiemelkedő helyen épült a XII. században. Az 1930-as években a közelében folytatott ásatás az Árpád-kor korai szakaszára datált sírokat tárt fel. Az eredetileg kőfallal kerített temető leleteinek antropológiai különlegessége, hogy a csontvázak mindegyike 180–190 centiméter magas, az akkori Kárpát-medence területén szokatlanul nagy termetű férfiakról árulkodik.
A nyugati oldalán egyszerű barokk toronnyal kiegészített templom alaprajza is érdekesebb a másutt tipikusnak mondható körtemplomokénál. A kerek hajóhoz kelet felé patkóíves karéj csatlakozik szentély gyanánt, ám a központi térhez még két további, köríves formájú bővítmény járul északról és délről. Régebbi feltevés szerint az 1100-as években épített plébániatemplom idővel kicsinek bizonyult a falu gyarapodó lakossága számára, ezért nagyobbították meg ilyen módon, ám a korábbi, csupán felületes régészeti kutatás, majd a közelmúltban lefolytatott teljes épületfeltárás tisztázta keletkezésének körülményeit. A kőből épült alap és a felmenő falak tanúsága szerint az egész, háromlevelű lóherére emlékeztető alaprajzú templom egyetlen román kori periódusban épült, a későbbi középkorban csupán kisebb átalakításokat végeztek rajta. Azt még nem sikerült kideríteni, hogy vajon miért, miféle különleges célból alakították ilyen bonyolultnak tűnő formájúra templomukat az építők, miféle rendeltetést szánhattak az egymással szemközt álló mellékkaréjoknak. (Az északit sekrestyeként használják, innen vezet fel egy belső lépcső a szószékre, a déli karéj mellékkápolnául szolgál.) Az eredeti centrális alaprajz korabeli párhuzamai közül csupán a távoli Heves megyei Tar község XI–XII. századi háromkaréjos templomát ismerjük, illetve sokkal később keletkezett kápolnáknál találkozunk hasonló – a Szentháromságot szimbolizáló – szerkezeti megoldással.
A Rába menti Szentmiklós község történetírója, Ráth Károly az 1800-as évek végén még római korból származó épületmaradványokat is látott a határban. A falu a török–magyar háborúk vége felé, 1626-ban elpusztult, lakói elhagyták. Az 1701-ben visszaköltözők a régi templomot mozlim mecsetnek vélték. A XVIII. században újjáépítették – ekkor készült tornya is –, és barokk oltárokkal szerelték fel. A főoltár olajfestménye védett. A műemlék templomot az elmúlt években restaurálták, új tetőszerkezete tavaly készült el.

 Ludwig Emil, mno.hu

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