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Móser Zoltán fantasztikus cikksorozata a régmúlt idők, az elfelejtett Magyarország kincseit mutatja meg nekünk ebben a párját ritkító sorozatban, mely a Magyar Nemzet hétvégi magazinjának volt elengedhetetlen tartozéka. Utazzon velünk, ismerjük meg együtt Magyarországot egy kicsit másképpen.

"Minden dolog fény az ember számára"

Joannes Scotus

Több francia főember került III. Béla francia feleségével Magyarországra. Ezek közé az újhozók közé tartozott Aynard lovag is, Champagne szülötte. Ez jutott eszembe a normandiai Cean középkori katedrálisában, ahol néhány héttel ezelőtt a középkori Magyarország premontrei emlékeiről nyílott kiállítás. A képek között főhelyen természetesen Zsámbék szerepelt. Itt a természetes szónak van egy mélyebb értelme is: ugyanis mi itt laktunk, itt kezdtük nejemmel az életünket, s itt született két leányunk is.

A zsámbéki premontrei prépostságot az 1200-as évek elején alapította a francia eredetű Aynard nembeli Smaragd és Egyed ispán. A legújabb régészeti kutatások szerint a francia nemzetség 1100 körül települt rá a már körülbelül 1030 óta itt élő magyar falura, és először egy egyhajós kis templomot építtetett. Erre épült rá a Keresztelő Szent János tiszteletére felszentelt premontrei prépostság, melynek temploma a nemzetségi monostortemplomok közül az egyik legjelentősebb. 1475-ben Mátyás király a monostort kedvelt pálosainak adja oda. Ugyanekkoriban Corvin János herceg kapta meg a zsámbéki uradalmat. 1541-ben a török feldúlja a monostort, a barátokat megölik. 1558-tól 1686-ig száz-százötven főnyi török őrség tanyázik a kolostor falai között. 1686. július 19-én másfél hónappal Budavár végleges felszabadítása előtt Bottyán János (ekkor még a császári ármádia huszár ezredese) és esztergomi huszárai lekaszabolják Zsámbék török őrségét. 1686-tól a királyi kamarától a Zichyek vásárolják meg a zsámbéki uradalmat. 1739-ben a pestis 825 halottat szedve majdnem újra elnépteleníti az ekkorra már svábokkal betelepített falut. 1763. június 28.: újra zsámbéki gyásznap! Erős földrengés rázza meg a tájat, s a kolostorrom tovább romlik.

Zsámbék festői romjai állandó témája volt és máig létező gondja a magyar műemlékvédelemnek. A megtépázott templomrom melynek északi fala s boltozatának egy része beomlott óriási kőpókhálóként kísértetiesen alácsüngő ívbordáival, a szabad égnek meredő pilléreivel ma is megkapó hatást tesz írja Möller István helyreállítása után néhai Gerevich Tibor, a román kori építészetünk nagy búvára. A Möller István tervei szerint kezdődött állagmegóvás 1899-ben fejeződött be.

1934-ben Lux Kálmán vezetésével újabb feltárás kezdődött: ekkor kerültek elő a templom északi oldalához csatlakozó kolostor falrészletei. A kolostor és templom között egy négyszögletes udvar volt, a kerengő. E falak zöme a pálos szerzetesrend építkezésének emlékét őrzi, ugyanis ekkor épült át a kolostor gótikus stílusban. Ma már csak egy dongaboltozatos pince a volt ebédlő , az alapfalak és egy alagútszakasz maradt meg a hatalmas építményből. Másfél évtizeddel ezelőtt újra elkezdődött a templom restaurálása, ami azóta is, egyfolytában vitákat vált ki. Mivel én nem erről kívánok szólni, s a most megjelenő fotóalbumom sem erről szól, befejezésül csak annyit, amennyit Jékely Zoltán verséből a címben is kiemeltem: aki Zsámbékra ellátogat, ne a romra tekintsen, hanem a műre.

Móser Zoltán, mno.hu

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