Ma 2020 szeptember 29. Mihály napja van. Holnap Jeromos napja lesz.
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A veleméri templom

Bob

Szöveg méret

Még nincs értékelve

Magyar Nemzet szombati magazinjának egyik legérdekesebb sorozatát közöljük le folytatásokban, melyben a remek Ludwig Emil megmutatja nekünk a rejtőzködő Magyarország eldugott kincseit, melyek mellett sokszor figyelmetlenül elhaladunk a mindennapi rohanó életünk során. Vigyázzunk ezekre a páratlan kincsekre, hiszen ezek a kincsek alappillérei szeretett Hazánknak.

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A szerző felvétele

Hála istennek – és a régiségeink iránt mostanában megélénkült érdeklődésnek –, ma már nem teljesen ismeretlen a veleméri templom. Mégis amikor az ember pár évenként újra meg újra visszatér az Őrség e félreeső szegletébe, elzarándokolni a közvetlenül a szlovén határon megbúvó becses műemlékhez, a rejtőzködő magyar múlt jellemző példáját látja maga előtt. A fogyatkozó, már alig kétszáz lelket számláló Velemér községen túl, a Pap-rétnek nevezett hegyoldalon, az erdő szélén áll a nyolc évszázaddal ezelőtt épült katolikus templom, amelynek híres középkori falfestményei már régen a „nem hivatalos világörökség” részét alkotják.
Rómer Flóris nagyváradi apát, egyik legelső műemlékkutató szakemberünk 1863-ban vetődött el Vas vármegye e távoli zugába. Felismerte az akkor nagyon leromlott állapotban, tetőzet és toronyfedél nélkül álló templom – és különösen a freskók – értékét; tüstént jelentést készített róla a régészeti szaklapba, és újságcikket írt a Vasárnapi Újságba. Az ennek nyomán részlegesen kijavított épületet azonban csak 1904-ben, 1937-ben, végül 1967–68-ban állították helyre megnyugtatóan, s óvták meg a további károsodástól. A XIX. század végén készült másolatokat felhasználva ekkor restaurálták a falképeket is.
A templom első említése, „Welemer” településsel együtt, 1360-ban történik. A falu ekkor a közeli lendvai vár birtokai közé tartozott, később a Szécsi családé, majd a leggazdagabb felvidéki dinasztia, a Thurzók tulajdona lett. 1508-tól egészen az említett Rómer-látogatásig nem bukkant fel sem a hely, sem templomának neve, amelyet eredetileg is a Szentháromság tiszteletére szenteltek fel valamikor az 1220-as évek elején. Ekkor készült az egyhajós, nyugati tornyos téglaépület, amelynek sokszögzáródású, támpillér nélküli szentélye a román kor és a korai gótikus stílus közötti átmenetet szemlélteti. Az arányos hajót lapos gerendafödém borította, a keskeny, enyhén csúcsos diadalívvel elválasztott szentélyt ötfiókos, kezdetleges boltozattal fedték le. A keleti végfalon keskeny, egyszerű díszű gótikus ablak nyílik, a szentély déli részén különös kerek „lyuk” látható, a hajó déli oldalán szabályosan kimért, hármas ablaksor pedig minden bizonnyal a Szentháromság magasztos egységét szimbolizálja. A terméskő lábazattól szépen futó, rézsűs párkány választja el a táglafalazatot, a sarkokat faragott kövek erősítik, a koronapárkányt félkörös árkádsor díszíti, amelynek eresz alatti sarkairól faragott kőarcok néznek le, s jelképszerű szobrocskák ragadják meg a tekintetet.
A hasáb formájú, gúlasisakos torony a hajó előtt áll, nyugati bejáratával kis előcsarnokot képezve. A megkapó tisztaságú belső térbe lépőt elkápráztatja a falfestmények látványa. Az északi falon, a diadalív két oldalán és a szentély egészében megmaradtak a – reformátusok által a XVII. században bemeszelt, később előhámozott – freskók. A hajóban a háromkirályok betlehemi látogatása, Szent László király, Szent Miklós püspök, Szent Erzsébet és az apostolok alakjai, Jézus kálváriája és az utolsó ítélet jelenetei, valamint a világbíró Krisztus és a köpönyeges Szűz Mária képei láthatók; a szentélyben pedig az angyali üdvözlet, az evangélisták jelképes és valóságos portréi mellett ott van – az északi oldalon fönn, a gótikus szentségháztól jobbra – a falképek festőjének önarcképe! A veleméri freskók alkotója, Aquila János (a már ismertetett martyánci templom építő- és festőmestere – vö. Magyar Nemzet, november 10.) 1378-ban dolgozott itt.
Türelmesen végignézegetve a 623 éves freskókat, majd visszatérve a főváros új keletű „falfestményei” közé, elgondolkozhatunk a művészet „fejlődésének” irányán.

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