Ma 2021 május 10. Ármin, Pálma napja van. Holnap Ferenc napja lesz.
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A felsőörsi Mária Magdolna-templom

Bob

Szöveg méret

Még nincs értékelve

Magyar Nemzet szombati magazinjának egyik legérdekesebb sorozatát közöljük le folytatásokban, melyben a remek Ludwig Emil megmutatja nekünk a rejtőzködő Magyarország eldugott kincseit, melyek mellett sokszor figyelmetlenül elhaladunk a mindennapi rohanó életünk során. Vigyázzunk ezekre a páratlan kincsekre, hiszen ezek a kincsek alappillérei szeretett Hazánknak.

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Fotó: Mészáros József

Veszprém felől közelítvén meg a Balaton északi partját, bármelyik utat választjuk, mindenütt középkorunk épített tanúiba botlunk. A közismert vörösberényi erődtemplomon kívül elsősorban Szentkirályszabadja hatalmas gótikus egyházát említhetjük, de Litér, Sóly és más félreeső kisközségek egyházi műemlékei is megérdemlik a figyelmet. Az ősi malomvölgyi országutat választva pedig Felsőörs falu központjában olyan pompás román kori templomot láthatunk, amilyenből csak kevés van az egész magyarországi román kori építészetben.
A káptalanfüredi elágazás melletti dombtetőn álló épület rozsdavörös színű, faragott kváderkövekből emelt, hatalmas tornya egyből megragadja a tekintetet. Vajon ki építhetett ilyen tekintélyes egyházat e ma is alig ezerlelkes faluban? Hát még ha tüzetesebben szemügyre vesszük a részleteket: a faragott pillérfős nyugati kapuzatot a timpanonban lévő domborművekkel s a lábazatot tartó szobrokkal, fölötte a hármas ablak „csomóra kötött” kőoszlopait; a hajó és a szentélyapszis ormán körbefutó párkánysort és a belső tér faragott tagozatait. A XII–XIII. században csak királyi székhelyeken készültek ehhez foghatóan gazdag templomok. Vagy a közvetlen közelükben, mint itt, a veszprémi királynői vár és a püspökség szomszédságában.
Ezen a helyen már az ezres esztendőkben temető volt, s vélhetőleg ugyanitt állt a falu első plébániája. Míg a falu neve első ízben egy 1082. évi iratban bukkan fel – Wrsu alakban –, egy Fila nevű örsi nemes 1127 és ’31 között már veszprémi kanonokként jegyez oklevelet. Az Örsi nemzetségből évszázadokig országos főemberek kerültek ki, nem csoda hát, hogy a XIII. században már világi vezetésű prépostság és hozzá tartozó társaskáptalan volt Felsőörsön. A templom elkészültét Bertalan veszprémi püspök hivatali idejére (1226–44 közé) tehetjük, ő szentelte fel az új Szent Mihály-főoltárt.
A nyugati torony mögötti, szélesebb főhajó a diadalíven túl patkóívvel záruló szentélyben végződik, a mellékhajókhoz keleten kápolna, illetve sekrestye kapcsolódik. A torony vaskos faltömegében rejteklépcső vezet fel a középhajó felé nyíló magánkarzatra, és e szint nyugati oldalán vannak az említett ablakok a misztikus „Herkules-hurkokkal”, amelyekhez hasonlót hazánkban csak Pannonhalmán látni. Külön említést érdemelnek a kapuzat faragott részletei, a féloszlopok fejezetén végigvonuló indák és akantuszlevelek, összefonódó sárkány-, állat- és emberfigurák, a középmezőben áldást osztó püspök és donátorok alakjai. Rendkívül érdekes a kapuoszlopok lábazatánál lévő szoborpár: a bal felőli a magyar mondavilág griffmadara.
A belső berendezésből a barokk főoltár a legértékesebb. 1740 táján készült. 1745-ből való a szószék, a rajta látható B. M. monogramú címer a török, majd a kuruc háborúk idején tönkrement település és prépostsági templom újjáépítője, Padányi Bíró Márton emlékét őrzi. A tudós veszprémi püspök 1736-ban írta a Helytartótanácsnak: „A felsőörsi reformátusok a szép kváderköveket elhurcolták… amikor a templom javításához hozzákezdtem, ezeket az értékes köveket embereimmel és a kőmívesekkel házról házra járván felkutattattam, és ugyanazon templomnál felhasználtam.” Bíró Márton – aki felsőörsi prépost is volt – építtette a templommal szemközti földszintes, barokk manzárdtetős udvarházat. Íves kapuzatának ormát is a püspök faragott címere díszíti az 1748-as évszámmal. A prépostság bőkezű kegyúrként gondoskodott a Mária Magdolna-plébánia fenntartásáról, a templomban 1948-ig még perselypénzt sem szedtek

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